Please excuse the tripod typos, the foreign fonts sometimes come back causing the "to" to say "to" or "Co"
I have made efforts to fix this but they just go back to the original mistake after hitting the done button. Please
forgive this error.
In ancient years, the word King meant something different than it does today.
The word "King" really meant more like Land Baron, Jarl, Farm owner, or Land owner than a true ruling King that ruled over
a whole Country.
Numbers indicate generation number from Yngve Frey, born about 65 BC - ie. Harald the Fairhaired in generation
#28, and Cornelia is generation #56.
In "The Yngling Saga" of Heimskingla, The Saga of the Norse Kings Snorri Sturleson recounts the story of
Yngve Frey (King of Svitjod, 65 B.C.-10 A.D.) son of Njorth.
1.YNGVE FREY - King in Svitjod, probably
from Uppsala, Sweden, born about: 65 B.C. and died about: 10 A.D.Yngve was the son of Njorth. He was married to Gerd
Gymnesdatter. Their son was:
2. FJALNE or FJOLNIR- born-about 32 B.C. and died in 14 A.D. The saga tells
of his unusual death. While on a visit to Frode, the King of Denmark, a great feast was prepared in Fjalne's honor to which
the King invited many guests from throughout the country. A great vat had been constructed on the lower floor of Frode's big
house, above which was a loft. A hole had been made in the floor of the loft to accommodate the preparation of mead (a strong
alcoholic liquor) in the vat. Fjalne and his party had rooms on the level of the loft above the vat of mead. During the night
Fjalne felt "nature's call" and left his room to relieve himself. The saga states: "he was very sleepy and exceedingly drunk."
On his return to his room he slipped from the gallery into the vat of mead and drowned. His son was:
- King of Svitjod as well as a place in Russia from where he got his wife who was named Vana. Svegde was born in 1
B.C. and died in 34 A.D. The Saga tells of his strange demise, also in a state of drunken-ness like his father. One night
when Svegde and his men had been drinking excessively and were about to retire for the night, Svegde looked out and saw a
large stone with a dwarf sitting under it. He rushed to the stone where the dwarf opened a door and urged Svegde to enter
in order chat he could see Odin. Svegde went in and never came out. He and Vana had a son who was:
or VINLANDI- a Swedish king who married Driva, daughter of Snow the Old from Finland, where he spent
one winter. Vinlande left Finland in the spring, promising to return within three years. When he had not returned after ten
years, Driva sent the son she had by Vinlande to his father in Sweden and sought: the help of a witch to either kill Vinlande
or force him to rerurn to Finland. During a nightmare, Vinlande was trampled to death by "Mara" (the nightmare or female ghost).
Their son was:
5. VISBUR - Swedish King who was killed by his sons from his first wife. After Visbur senr away
his first wife and two sons in order to take another wife, the first wife sent the two sons back to Visbur to ask him to return
their mother's dowry - three large farms and a gold ornament. Visbur refused to return anything to them. During the night
they gathered a group of men and went to Visbur's house where they burned the house with Visbur in it. His son was:
DOMALDE - A Swedish King who died in 130 A.D. During his reign, Sweden was ravaged by famine. No amount of sacrifice would
appease the gods, so at last it was decided to offer the King as a human sacrifice. This was done and the country then had
good crops and people lived in peace. His son was:
7. DOMAR - King of Sweden from 130 A.D. until his death in
162. Domar had a long and peaceful reign. He was married to Drott, daughter of King Danp, and sister of King
Dan Mikkillati, after whom Denmark was named. Their son was:
8. DYGVE - King of Sweden from 162 until he died in his bed in 190. His son was:
9. DAG - King from
190 to 220. The Saga tells that Dag had a special gift and could communicate with the birds. He had a sparrow which he would
send to other countries to gather information for him. On one of the sparrow's visits to another country, a peasant killed
the sparrow. When Dag heard about this he took a great plundering expedition to avenge the bird's death. After plundering,
raiding and killing many people. Dag was returning to his ship when a workman in the field threw a hay fork into the troop,
striking the king in the head, killing him. His son was:
10. AGNE - King from 220 to 260. Agne took an
army to Finland where he defeated the chieftain Froste and took his daughter Skjalv and her brother Loge. He married
Skjalv and prepared a great burial feast in honor of her father, Froste. Agne now was in possession of the gold ornament which
Visbur had refused to return to his first wife. It was securely tied about Agne's neck, when he fell into a drunken stupor
after a great drinking bout at the burial feast. Skjalv, his wife, fastened a noose under the ornament while Agne slept, and
with the help of her men threw the rope over a branch of the tree above and hanged Agne. His son was:
- King from 260 until 280. He was born in 240 A.D. and had a brother, Erik. The Saga tells that the two brothers rode out
into the fields one day and did not return. Upon investigating, they were found dead, their heads crushed. As they had no
weapons, it was believed they had used the bridles of their horses to beat each other to death. Alrik's son was:
YNGVE ALRICKSSON - King in Svitjod from 280 until killed by his brother in the year 306 A.D. King Alf was very jealous
of his brother Yngve. Alf's wife taunted him by making flattering remarks about Yngve, and preferred the company of her brother-in-law
to that of her husband. One night after a drinking bout where the guests were so drunk they did not see the King enter the
room, he went to the high seat where his wife sat with Yngve. Alf stabbed Yngve to death, but not before Alf returned the
favor, and both fell dead. Yngve's son was:
13. JORUND - King in Uppsala, Sweden from 302 until he was hanged
in 312 A.D. He went on many expeditions, which suddenly ended when he was captured and hanged in 312. His son was:
AUN (ON OR ANE) THE OLD - King of Sweden until 380 A.D. Aun was not a warrior, but stayed "quietly at home." Several times
he fled from attackers, always returning. In return for a long life, Aun sacrificed nine of his sons. At last the people of
Sweden refused to let him sacrifice the tenth son. Aun died without pain at a very old age. His son was :
- King in Svitjod until 456. Egil, like his father, preferred sitting at home to fighting, yet he engaged in many battles
before fleeing to Denmark. Here he got the support he needed to recover his kingdom. Three years later Egil was gored by a
bull and died. He was buried in a mound at Uppsala, Sweden, His son was:
16. OTTAR VENDELCROW - King in Svitjod
who died in 460. After many encounters between Ottar of Svitjod and Frode of Denmark, Ottar was at last killed and his
body left for the ravens and wild animals to consume. His son was: 17. ADILS - King in Svitjod 460 Co 505. A
very rich king who went on many Viking expeditions during his long reign. On one expedition Adils and his men plundered a
King's house on the coast: of Holstein and took a large herd of cattle as well as all of the people tending the herd, among
them an especially .attractive girl called Yrsa. She became the wife of Adils. As a result of an accident, Adils was killed
in 505. His horse stumbled, fell, and threw Adils so that his head struck a stone, crushing his skull. His son was: 18.
EYSTEIN - King in Sweden from 505 Co 531. A marauding sea king surrounded the house where Eystein was sleeping, set it
afire, burning the king and all his court. His son was: 19. YNGVAR - King in Sweden from 530 until 545, when
he fell in a battle with men from the Baltic lands. His son was: 20. ONUND ROADBUILDER - who was King in Svitjod
from 545 Co 565. Onund was one of the most popular kings. He built roads, hence his name, cleared land and brought it into
cultivation. As Onund was passing through a deep, narrow, valley following heavy rains, he and many of his party were buried
by a landslide. His son was: 21. INGJALD THE EVIL - who was King in Sweden from 565 Co 623. Ingjald was fed
the roasted heart of a wolf when he was a young boy and from that t ime forward he was a ferocious person. On one occasion,
Ingjald prepared a great feast to which he invited many of the important leaders in Sweden. Among others, six kings were present.
When the guests became adequately drunk, Ingjald and his cohorts set fire to the house, burning all those inside. This strategy
was used several times by Ingjald - the last time when he found himself facing defeat - and rather than face his enemies,
he and all his party became dead drunk, set the hall on fire, consuming all within. His wife was Gauchild. Their son
was: 22. OLAF THE TREE-FELLER - who was King in Sweden from 623 Co 640. After his father's death, Olaf fled
to Vermland. He was married to Solveig, a daughter of Halfdan Guldtand. When famine came to the land, the people burned Olaf's
house with him in it as a sacrifice to appease the gods. Their son was: 23. HALFDAN HVITBEIN "WHITE LEG," who
was king in Denmark about 710. Halfdan was brought up by his uncle Solve, the brother of Halfdan's mother. Some of the Swedes
decided it had been unfair to blame Halfdan's father for the famine, and the real cause was overpopulation, so they sent a
force against Solve, killed him, and brought Halfdan back as a prisoner. Halfdan was made a chieftain and later became a great
king in Vescfold. He married Aase, daughter of Eystein The Severe, King of Hedmark and Upland. Halfdan died
in his bed as an old man in 740. Aase and Halfdan's son was: 24. EYSTEIN HALFDANSON - who was King in Vestfold
and Romerike. He was born in 710 and died in 789. He married Hild, daughter of King Eirik Agnarson. On one of Eystein's Viking
raids, as he was in his ship returning home, the boom of another ship knocked Eystein into the water and killed him. Their
25. HALFDAN THE MILD - who was King of Vest fold about 780. He was also called the "Bad Entertainer" as he did not
feed his men well. He married Liv, daughter of King Dag of Vestmare and lived at the Holte Farm. He became ill
and died in his bed. Their son was:
HALVDANSON - "Gudrod the Hunter" or Gudrod the Magnificent". He was King of Vestfold and Romerike
until he was killed in 821.
After Gudrod's wife died, he sent to King Harald of Agder
for the hand of his daughter, Aasa of Agder, in marriage.
He was so insulted and incensed when he was refused,
he put to sea with a large fleet and many Viking warriors.
He arrived at Agder where he killed the king and his
son, then kidnapped Aasa and took her for his wife.
Aasa had revenge by having one of her bondsmen kill Gudrod,
after which she ruled in the name of her son who was less than one year old when his father was killed.
Aasa is the Queen who is believed to have been buried
in the Oseberg Viking ship, excavated in 1904 and now on exhibit in the Viking Ship Museum on Bygdoy in Oslo.
*See her Oseberg Viking Burial Ship Above*
Their son was: 27. HALFDAN THE BLACK - who was born in 820 and died in 860. Halvdan grew up in Agder, becoming strong
and black-haired and known as Halvdan Svarte Black.
Halfdan was married to Ragnhild, daughter of Sigurd Hjort, a strong and handsome king in Ringerike, and his
wife Thorney, who was a daughter of a king in Jutland. Halfdan's death is described in detail in Heimskringla.
As he was returning from a feast in Hadeland, he had to cross the ice on Randsfjord. It was during a great thaw in the
spring of about 860 A.D. At the place he chose to cross, a hole had been made in the ice where cattle could drink. The dung
from the cattle caused the ice to thaw, weakening it to such an extent that Halfdan and his party fell through the ice and
drowned. His subjects, in each of the four districts where he ruled, wanted his body buried in their district. It was decided
to divide the body in four so that one part could be buried in each district. (It is believed that Halfdan's half-brother,
Olav Gierstad Alv, is the Viking King who was buried in his ship at Godstad. This ship was excavated in 1890 and can be seen
at the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo.)
Halvdan and Ragnhild had a son whom they named Harald, who became king on Halvdens death. (Studies are now underway
to determine if he was buried in a mound at Stein in Hole farm in Ringerike.)
Halfdan and Ragnhild's son was:
28."HARALD THE FAIRHAIRED"was born in 850 and died in 933. For a Viking, Harald lived a long life. He died
in his bed at the age of 83. At the age of 10 years he became King. Among Harald's wives were Ragnhild, for whom Harald
put away nine wives in order to marry her; Gyda, who was initially responsible for his gaining the name "Fairhaired;" and
also Svanhild, Ashild, and Snaefrid. With his many wives, Harald had at least 20 sons and several daughters.
The wife best known from the sagas is Gyda. She refused to have Harald for a husband until he succeeded in uniting all
of Norway. Harald vowed he would not cut or comb his hair until he had fulfilled Gyda's wishes. For ten years his hair remained
uncut and uncombed, during which time he was called "Lufa," meaning with rough and matted hair. After Harald succeeded in
uniting Norway, Earl Rangvald cut and dressed his friend's hair following a feast at More. It was Earl Rangvald who then gave
him the name "Harald the Fairhaired." With his wife, Svanhild, Harald had Olaf of Viken and Bjorn the Traveler. With another
wife, Ragnild, he had Erik Blood-Axe. Starting with Vestfold, Oppland and Viken, which
he had inherited, Harald with the help of his friend Earl Haakon Grjothardssen, conquered Trondelag. He made alliances with
some of the jarls (earls), ruthlessly waged war against others and suppressed those under his rule..
The first major sea battle in Viking ships was fought between Harald and his followers against seven rebellious nobles
at Hafrs fjord in 872. To prevent raids on Norwegian shores, he attacked Viking camps in Scotland and England where he formed
an alliance with King Athelstan.
Many prominent and wealthy families fled Norway, often to Iceland. Trying to stem the tide, Harald imposed an emigration
tax. The sagas tell of one jarl, Herlaug, who refused to submit to Harald, choosing rather to have himself buried alive in
a funeral mound instead..
In ten years, Harald brought Norway under his rule. As he made plans to marry Gyda, his friend Earl Ragnvald cut and
dressed his hair for a feast at Moreand gave him the name Harald Harfagre (Harald Fairhair).
He also acquired eight more wives. Among them was Snefrid or Snofried Svasedatter.
Harald tried to make Ragnhild, princess of Denmark, wife number nine, she refused, demanding he first drop all the others.
And he did. He and Ragnhild had a son, Eirik, in 895 who, although he was the youngest of at least nine sons, was named by
Harald to succeed him in 933, five years before his death. He became known as Eirik Blodoks (Blood Axe).
Although Norway had become
a single kingdom under Harald, many of the deposed jarls and their subjects wanted to remain independent.
successor Eirik had married Gunhild Gormsdatter, the daughter of King Gorm the Old of Denmark. With her encouragement, he
sought to eliminate all threats to his rule by brute force and intimidation. He had two of his half-brothers killed, earning
him the name Blodoks (Bloodaxe)by which he has since been known.
his youngest brother, Haakon Adalsteinforstre The Good, forced Eirik Bloodaxe out of the country. Eirik fled to Northumberland
in Brtain and later became its king. He was killed in a plundering expedition into England in 954.
fourth wife was Svanhild Oysteinsdatter. They had a son, Bjørn, who had a son, Gudrod, who had a son Olav 2 Haraldsen who
was killed in the battle of Stiklestad in 1030 and was canonized as St. Olav.
Haralds third wife was Snefrid or Snofried Svasedatter. They had a son named Sigurd Haraldson Rise, born about
Sigurd and a wife we have not identified, had a son, Halvdan Sigurdsen, (930-960), who, like his great-grandfather
was called Halvdan Svarte or Halvdan the Black.
Halvdan became King of Oppland and with his wife, Ei Randesdatter, had a son, Sigurd Halvdansen Syr, born about 960.
Sigurd Halvdansen Syr became king of Ringerike and married Åse Gudbrandsdatter. He died in February of 1018 in Bonsnes,
Ringerike, and is sometimes known as Sigurd Halfdansen Syr Bonsnes.
He and Åse had a son, Harald Sigurdsen Harade, who was born in 1015. Harald had at leaast two wives. The first was
Tora Torbergsdatter Giske with whom he had two children: TorBjørg Halvdansdatter (sic), born 1040 in Oppland; the second was
Olav Haraldsen Kyrre, born about 1040.
Haralds second wife
was Yelisaveta Elisabeth av Kiev, probably a royal. They were married in Ukrainia in 1045. Their daughter was Ragnhild Maria
Haroldsdatter, born in 1047.
Ringerike. "Lift mere om Elsrud-stten: av Kjell Hallmann og Thorleif Solberg" 1983, traces the history from Harald Harfagre
to Hans Olsen Rustand as follows:
29. ERIK HARALDSON BLOOD-AXE - king in Norway from 930 Co 934. He married Gunhild. daughter of king Gorm the Old
from Denmark. Erik and his wicked queen tried to get control of all of Norway. He had two half-brothers killed, including
Olaf (#29 Olaf Haraldson mentioned above). Erik was a great warrior and attempted to preserve the kingdom of his father by
brute force, earning him the ride, "Blood-Axe". He conducted many Viking raids in Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and the Hebrides.
He was killed on a plundering expedition to England in 954. His son was: 30. GUDROD ERIKSON - King of the Isle
of Man in the southern part of the Inner Hebrides. He led an expedition to Norway to win back the throne from Olav Trygvason.
Gudrod was killed in battle at Viken in 999. His son was; 31. HARALD THE BLACK - from Islay. King of Man - died
in 1040. His son was: 32. GUDROD CROVAN - died at Islay in 1095. He participated in the battle of Stanford bridge
in 1066. When he came home from the battle, he made several attempts to win the throne of the Isle of Man, and finally succeeded.
Gudrod became a great king at Man and acknowledged King Magnus Barefoot as his overlord. His son was: 33. OLAF GUDRODSON
- Because of his small stature he was called "Olaf Dwarf". King of Man from 1113 Co 1153. Olaf was raised in the English Court
but returned to the Isle of Man in 1113. His first wife was the daughter of the Earl of Galloway, and his second wife was
Ingeborg, daughter of Hakon Paalsen, Earl of the Orkney Islands. A nephew of Olaf's attacked him during a meeting and cut
off his head. A son by his first wife was: 34. GUDROD OLAFSON - died 1187. Married Finola, an Irish princess.
He was sent to Norway in 1152 to pay taxes as well as to pay homage to the king. In 1153 he became King of Man. He had made
many conquests during his reign, including Dublin, so he reigned now over a large kingdom. Gudrod had 3 sons of whom Reginald
was the oldest, but since he was the son of a mistress, it was the youngest son, Olaf, who had the inherited right to the
throne, but he was only 10 years old so Reginald (Rangvald) became king. Son: 35. REGINALD GUDRODSON - was killed
in 1228. He was a great sea king and it is said that for three years he did not sleep under a roof a single night. He had
trouble with his brother, Olaf, who was married to Christina, daughter of the Earl of Ross of Scotland. Olaf came to be known
as "Olaf the Black" and reigned over Lewis in the Hebrides. Reginald's son was: 36. GUDROD DON - King of Man,
until his death about 1230. His son was: 37. HARALD - King of Man. He went to Norway in 1250 and died there
in 1287. (Magnus Olafsson, son of Olaf the Black and his wife Christina of Ross, was the last King of Man who was of Norwegain
family.) Harald's son was: 38. TORLIEF HARALDSSON - who was living in 1280, and married to Princess Magnild
(Maud, Matilda) who died in Norway in 1292. She was a sistcr of the king, Magnus Olafsson, who died in 1265. Their son was: 39.
HALSTEIN TORLIEFSSON - emigrated from Man in 1275 and settled in Norway, where he died in 1345. In 1292 his mother also
moved to Norway and died there in 1302. Halstein used the Skancke coat of arms, which he probably got from his mother. He
was a district governor in Jemtland (a province of Sweden which was part. of Norway at the time), and also served the king
in Trondelag. He lived at a large farm, Egge, in Sparbu. His son was:
40. NILS HALSTEINSON - married to the
rich Kristina Halvardsdatter. daughter of the judge Halvor. Halstein and Nils both used the Isle of Man coat of arms which
was first used by Olaf the Black during his reign at Man from 1251 to 1265. Their son was: 41. PEDER NILSSON
- known to be living in 1410. His son was: 42. KARL PEDERSSON - lived at the Hove farm in Jemtland ca. 1430.
He had the same standing as nobility and is regarded as the progenitor of the Skancke family in Jemtland. His son was: 43.
JENS KARLSSON - known to be living in 1469; died in 1488. Owner of part of the Hov estate and also the Hillestad farm
in Hackaas. His son was: 44. KARL JENSSON JAMTE (Schancke) - pastor in Toten, later Bishop in Hamar, born in
Sweden in 1460 and died in Oslo in 1512. He was persecuted and imprisoned by Prince Christian (later King Christian the llth),
because he was suspected of being in alliance with a group whose purpose it was to drive the Danish lords and masters out
of Norway. He tried to get away from the Bishop's stronghold in Hamar by lowering himself down from a window with the help
of bedclothes, but fell and broke his leg. He managed to get away and hide in a hollow tree, but he left tracks in the snow
and was found by the prince and his people with dogs, and the bishop was taken to prison in Oslo. Anxiety and poor treatment
of his wounds led to his death in 1512. While he was priest in Toten, he found himself a "wife" and had a child with her.
As a Catholic bishop, he was supposed to live in single celibacy, but in Norway it was considered acceptable for the bishop
to live together with a woman without the benefit of marriage. When the bishop was imprisoned, he sent the woman and their
children to the farthest estate in the area, "Landaasen" in Fluberg, and from there his descendants have spread themselves
to many communities in Oppland, including Toten, Begnadalen, and Hedalen. One of their sons was: 45. JENS KARLSSON
LANDAASEN - the oldest son of Karl, born before 1500. One of his sons was Johannes Jensen Landaasen, probably born about
1520 -30. Another son was: 46. OLUF JENSEN HILLESTAD LANDAASEN - married to Damoy. When Bishop Jens Nielsen
made his trip of inspection in the late 1500s, he went to the Hov church in Toten and there participated in a famous wedding
at the farm Hallingstad, where Sir Niels also came in contact with Oluf and Damoy. Damoy met the bishop's entourage and treated
them to beer. Oluf and Damoy had a son: 47. LAURITS OLUFSEN LANDAASEN - a rich man who owned Landaasen as well
as property in Begnadalen. His oldest son, Ole, became owner of Landaasen. Another son was: 48. MONS (MOGENS) LAURITSON
HVALBYE (1605-1689). Lived in South Land. He was married twice, the second wife was named Gjertrud. With his first wife
he had two daughters. Inger and Tarand. Inger and her husband lived at North Hougsrud; Tarand and her husband lived at South
49. TARAND MONSDATTER HVALDBYE. She married Ole Gudbrandson Hougsrud. Their son was:
50. MONS OLSEN (born about 1669 at Sorum, Sorlandet, Buskerud, Norway). Mons married Siri Gulsdatter, daughter
of Gul Olsen Stugaarden and Gunhild Jonsdatter Tollefsrud. Siri also has royal roots - her lineage traces back
to Charlemagne, and such royalty as Alfred, King of England, and Charles I, King of France. Mons and
Siri's son was:
51. OLE MONSON SORUM (born about 1705 Sorum, Sorlandet, Buskerud, Norway). Ole Monson Sorum married Barbro Knutsdatter
Kvarteig, and their son was:
52. HANS OLSEN RUSTAND (born 1789, died 1861 in Iowa). He married Kari Olsdatter, and their son was:
53. NILS HANSEN RUSTAND VIKER (Born 7 Jul 1792 Rustand, Ytre Ada1, Buskerud, Norway). Nils and his wife Kari
Thorsdatter had a son:
54. OLE NILSON VIKER (born 10 Feb 1830 Viker, Ada1, Buskerud, Norway). Ole Nilson Viker immigrated to America in
1850 and spent a few years in Wisconsin and Iowa before settling in Minnesota in 1856. He married Margit Nubsdatter Onsgaard
in 1853 in Wisconsin. Ole Nilson and Margit had a daughter:
55. INGEBORG VIKER (born 16 Nov 1855 in Rock Creek, Mitchell Co., IA). Ingeborg married Ole Pederson Lunde.
It is interesting to note that Ole Pederson Lunde is a also a descendant of Ole Gudbrandson Hougsrud in #49 above from
his first marriage to Siri Hansdatter Vasslien. He was married second to Tarand Monsdatter Hvaldbye. So Ole Lunde & Ingeborg
Viker share Ole Gudbrandson Hougsrud as a common ancestor. Ole and Ingeborg had a daughter:
The Isle of Man Coat Of Arms:
(As seen Below)
The Arms are an augmented version of the traditional arms which comprise the Three Legs conjoined
on a red shield surmounted by a Crown and with the motto Quocunque Jeceris Stabit underneath.
In heraldic terms the Arms are described:
"For the Arms: Gules a Triskele Argent garnished and spurred Or And for the Crest ensigning the Shield
of Arms An Imperial Crown proper and for the Supporters Dexter a Peregrine Falcon and sinister a Raven both proper together
with this Motto Quocunque Jeceris Stabit."
The Peregrine Falcon(as seen below)
In 1405, King Henry IV gave the Isle of Man with all its rights to Sir John
Stanley on condition that he paid homage and gave two falcons to him and to every future King of England on his Coronation
Day. Sir John's descendants ruled as Kings or Lords of Mann for 360 years until George III assumed the Lordship, while the
presentation of two falcons continued up to the Coronation of George IV in 1822.
The Raven(as seen below)
The Raven is a bird of legend and superstition and there are a number of
places on the Island which include Raven in their names. The Island has a strong Viking element in its history and Odin, the
Norse God, was, according to mythology, accompanied by two Ravens. During the Millennium Year of 1979, a replica of a Viking
longship was sailed from Norway to the Isle of Man by a mixed Norwegian and Manx crew. The longship, which is now preserved
on the Island, is called "Odin's Raven".
The Motto(as seen below)
The motto "Quocunque Jeceris Stabit",
which translates literally as "whichever way you throw me, I will stand", continues
to feature on the Coat of Arms. This motto has been associated with the Isle of Man since circa 1300. It was, reportedly,
in use before this date by the MacLeods of Lewis as ancient Lords of the Isles of Scotland which, after 1266, included the
Isle of Man.
The Three Legs of Mann(as seen
The three legs symbol seems to have been adopted in the Thirteenth Century
as the armorial bearings of the native kings of the Isle of Man, whose dominion also included the Hebrides - the Western Isles
After 1266, when the native dynasty ended and control of the Island passed
briefly to the Crown of Scotland and then permanently to the English Crown, the emblem was retained, and among the earliest
surviving representations are those of the Manx Sword of State, thought to have been made in the year 1300 AD. The Three Legs
also appeared on the Manx coinage of the seventeenth-nineteenth centuries, and are still in everyday use in the Manx Flag.
Why the Three Legs were adopted as the royal arms of the Manx kingdom is
unknown. It was originally a symbol of the Sun, the seat of Power and Life. In ancient times the emblem was particularly connected
with the island of Sicily (probably because of its triangular outline) but the Sicilian "Legs" were always naked and generally
displayed Medusa's head at the central point.
A rather similar device was popular amongst the Celts and Norsemen in NW
Europe, and in view of this it has been suggested that the Manx Three Legs were a heraldic modification of a native badge
or emblem. Support for this theory may be seen in the appearance of the 'triskele', or simplified "Three Legs" emblem, on
coins of the tenth century Norse King, Anlaf Cuaran, whose dominion included Dublin and the Isle of Man; and it is probable
that the later Manx Kings were a branch of the same dynasty.
The ancient Manx Sword of State(as seen left)
The Ancient Manx Sword of State is carried by the sword bearer before the Queens personal
representative to the Isle of Man, the Lieutenant Governor, at each meeting of Tynwald day at St. John's. The Sword of State
dates from not later than the 12th Century.
It is traditionally the sword of Olaf Godredson (Olaf II or Olaf the
Black), who became King of the Sudreys (Southern Hebrides and Man) in 1226. Together with an army of northern Manx men
he successfully routed a challenge to his rule on 14th February in 1228 at Tynwald (considered to be Tynwald Hill, St John's).
The ceremonial sword is used at the Tynwald Day sitting at St Johns and is carried by
the Sword Bearer preceding the Lieutenant Governor in the procession. It also appears when Tynwald sits in the Legislative
Chambers in Douglas where a replica of the sword is displayed on non-sitting days.
The sword signifies the duty of the Sovereign, acting through Tynwald, to protect and
defend the people from the incursions of their enemies, in peace and in war. Tynwald is not properly constituted and no proceedings
can take place without its presence. Members show deference to its authority by standing in their places as the sword is brought
in and placed in position prior to commencement of business.
The ancient Manx Sword of State has a two-edged steel blade, 29 inches long, with a hardwood
hilt, 9 inches long, which tapers from the guard to the pommel. The guard is a thin steel band, 11 inches across, surmounted
where the guard intersects the blade with shields carrying the Three Legs, which also appear on the flattened pommel.